Efficacy and safety of Tregopil, a novel, ultra-rapid acting oral prandial insulin analog, as part of a basal-bolus regimen in type 2 diabetes: a randomized, active-controlled phase 2/3 study

Lebovitz HEFleming A , Cherrington AD , Joshi S



Efficacy and safety of ultra-rapid acting oral prandial insulin Tregopil was compared with insulin aspart (IAsp) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on insulin glargine and metformin.

Research design and methods

In this open-label, active-controlled trial, patients with T2D, HbA1c ≥7%–≤9% and 2-h postprandial glucose (PPG) ≥180 mg/dL were randomized 1:1:1 to Tregopil (30 mg, n = 30; 45 mg, n = 31) and IAsp, n = 30. Primary outcome was change from baseline (CFB) in HbA1c at week 24. Secondary outcomes included PPG excursion (PPGE) and PPG assessed from standardized test meal (STM) and 9-point self-monitored blood glucose.


The observed mean HbA1c did not improve at week 24 in Tregopil groups (30 mg [0.15%], 45 mg [0.22%] vs. a reduction in IAsp group [−0.77%]). Combined Tregopil group showed better 1-h PPGE control versus IAsp following STM (CFB, estimated treatment difference, 95% CI, −45.33 mg/dL [−71.91, −18.75], p = 0.001) and 1-h PPG trended toward better control. Tregopil showed lower PPGE at 15 min versus IAsp. Clinically significant hypoglycemia was lower with Tregopil versus. IAsp (rate ratio: 0.69).


Tregopil demonstrated an ultrafast, short-duration prandial profile with good safety. While Tregopil’s early postprandial effects were comparable to IAsp, its late postprandial effects were inferior.

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