Cross-over trials carry a higher weightage in choosing a therapeutic agent in clinical practice. A meta-analysis of cross-over trials involving the use of bisoprolol in hypertension (HT) would bring about clarity in positioning this drug.
The present study aimed to clarify the underlying benefits of bisoprolol in the reduction of blood pressure (BP) in HT patients when compared to selective beta-1 blockers (s-BBs – Atenolol, Betaxolol hydrochloride, Esmolol, Acebutolol hydrochloride, Metoprolol succinate, Nebivolol) by performing a meta-analysis of “cross-over” trials published in literature.
Systematic search was undertaken in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Clinicaltrials.gov registry, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program and 12 pharmacovigilance databases. Randomized, cross-over studies published up to October 2019 which compared bisoprolol with other s-BBs in HT patients were evaluated in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A meta-analysis was performed using random effects model in terms of mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for BP, heart rate (HR) and lipid profile.
Nine randomized cross-over studies which compared bisoprolol with other s-BBs (atenolol and nebivolol) were included in this meta-analysis. Bisoprolol reported significant reduction of sitting BP [MD: −3.35, 95% CI: −6.75, 0.05; P=0.05] and reduction of diastolic BP [MD: −2.00; 95% CI: −8.04, 4.04; P=0.52, non-significant] among patients with HT when compared to other s-BBs. Heart rate (HR) decreased significantly among HT patients in bisoprolol group treated for 2 w [MD: −6.00; 95% CI: −11.30, −0.70; P=0.03] when compared to those treated with other s-BBs. Analysis of lipid profile showed non-significant reduction of serum cholesterol [MD: −7.74; 95% CI: −17.18, 1.70; P=0.11] and triglyceride [MD: −26.57; 95% CI: −64.34, 11.20; P=0.17] levels in the bisoprolol group compared to other s-BBs. Bisoprolol treatment for 8 w resulted in a slight but statistically significant change in potassium levels [MD: −0.10; 95% CI: −0.16, −0.04; P<0.01] among HT patients.
The results of this meta-analysis reported significant efficacy of bisoprolol on BP and HR in comparison to other s-BBs in a meta-analysis of cross-over trials. Our findings show that use of bisoprolol as a therapeutic option is efficacious and safe compared to other s-BBs in this patient population.