Semaglutide and Obesity: Real-World Clinical Applications and Outcomes

Swati Sucharita Dash , Merlin Roshma Sherin , Debalina Das , Guruprasad KS Rao

Abstract

Obesity, a chronic and complex disease, is projected to have a prevalence of 49% by 2030 and is linked to various
comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, stroke, coronary heart disease, and cancers, resulting in a
substantial economic burden. Effective weight management is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Semaglutide, initially
developed as a GLP-1 receptor agonist for treating type 2 diabetes, is now being explored for its potential in addressing obesity.
Its utilization is expanding to chronic weight management as it mimics the effects of GLP-1, regulating blood sugar levels and
appetite. The FDA approved the use of a 2.4 mg injection of semaglutide once weekly for chronic weight management.
Semaglutide proves efficacy for weight loss in obesity, endorsed by STEP trial findings and real-world data, with safety akin to
GLP-1RA class, promoting long-term adherence. Its notable effects on albuminuria, HbA1c, heart failure, and quality of life
herald a transformative paradigm in obesity and associated comorbidity management. Through a review of existing literature
and clinical studies, this article provides a nuanced overview of the diverse real-world scenarios where semaglutide has been
applied, elucidating its impact on weight management and associated health outcomes.

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